Engage In Russia

Table of Contents

About Russia

Capital City

Moscow

Population

As of March 2024, the estimated population of Russia is 144,444,359 people.

Currency

The currency in Russia is the Russian Ruble (RUB). The currency symbol is ₽‎.

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Overview

Russia, located in northern Eurasia, is a vast country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering nearly twice the territory of Canada, and spans 11 time zones. Russia has a diverse geography, ranging from deserts to semiarid steppes, deep forests, and Arctic tundra. Its landscape includes landmarks such as Europe’s longest river, the Volga, and the world’s deepest lake, Baikal. The country is bordered by a multitude of neighboring countries, including Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Norway, Poland, and Ukraine. Russia has a rich historical and cultural heritage. It was the birthplace of the first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus’, and is known for adopting Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in the 9th century. Over the centuries, Russia experienced significant political and territorial changes, with the Grand Duchy of Moscow eventually growing into the Tsardom of Russia. By the 18th century, Russia had expanded through conquest and annexation, becoming the Russian Empire, which was one of the largest empires in history. Today, Russia is a federal semi-presidential republic, with the President serving as the head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of government. The capital city is Moscow, which is not only a political and administrative center but also a cultural and financial hub. Russia’s population is diverse, with ethnic Russians being the majority, but more than 120 other ethnic groups also present. The country’s climate is characterized by extreme temperatures, including harsh winters that have historically played a role in protecting the country from foreign invasions. Russia is a member of international organizations such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), and it continues to play a significant role on the global stage.

Employment Relationship

Permanent Employment

According to Russia's Labor Code, employment contracts concluded for an indefinite term are considered to be permanent. If the employment contract does not specify a duration, it is deemed to be concluded for an indefinite period. In cases where neither party requests termination of a fixed-term employment contract due to its expiry and the employee continues working after the contract term's expiry, the employment contract will be deemed to be concluded for an indefinite period.

Fixed-Term or Specific-Purpose Contracts

Russia's Labor Code limits the duration of fixed-term contracts to five years. Fixed-term employment contracts can be concluded in the following circumstances: Execution of duties performed by an employee who is on a leave of absence Performance of temporary work up to two months Performance of seasonal work For persons who are sent to work abroad Performance of jobs that are beyond the employer's ordinary work  Performance of particular work, even where a specific date for its completion cannot be determined Carrying out work related to the professional training of an employee When employers are small business organizations with up to 40 employees (up to 25 employees in trading and consumer services organizations) Hiring retired employees For persons employed by organizations located in extreme northern areas Hiring for emergency jobs to prevent catastrophes, disasters, accidents, epidemics, etc. For persons undergoing day-time studies For employees working in part-time jobs.

Temporary Employment Contratcs

Russia's Labor Code provides that an employee can be engaged on a fixed-term contract in temporary work for up to two months. Employers may also hire employees for seasonal work when, due to natural conditions, the work can only be performed during a certain period. Temporary employees can also be hired for a temporary extension of the employer's production capacity. Finally, employers may hire temporary employees to replace a temporarily absent employee. A fixed-term labor agreement is terminated with the expiration of its validity term. An employee must be warned about the agreement's expiration in written form not later than three days before dismissal. 

Probationary Period

Russia's Labor Code provides that, with consent from both parties, the employment contract can include a clause for a probationary period to test an employee's fitness for the job. The probationary period condition must be stated in the employment agreement. If no probationary period condition is stated in an employment agreement, an employee is accepted without such a trial period. The maximum probationary term is three months for full-time employees or six months for the heads and deputy heads of organizations, chief accountants and deputy chief accountants, the leaders of branches, representative offices, or other detached structural units of organizations. When a labor contract is concluded for a term of two to six months, the probationary term must not exceed two months. If their performance is not satisfactory, the employer has the right to dismiss the employee during the probationary period by giving advance notice of three days.

Working Hours

Russia's Labor Code states that the standard duration of working time cannot exceed 40 hours in a week. The employer is responsible for keeping a record of the actual working time of each employee. Employees who work longer than 40 hours per week are eligible for overtime. The law establishes reduced working hours as follows: For employees under 16 years of age, the working time is up to 24 hours a week. For employees between the ages of 16 to 18, the working time is up to 35 hours a week. For disabled employees, the working time is up to 35 hours a week. For employees who work in harmful and/or hazardous conditions, the working time is up to 36 hours a week. The length of working time on days preceding non-working holidays is reduced by one hour.

Holidays / PTO

Statutory Holidays

  • New Year Holidays - January 1 to January 5
  • Eastern Christmas Day - January 7
  • Day of the Defender of the Fatherland - February 23
  • International Women’s Day - March 8
  • Spring and Labor Day - May 1
  • Victory Day - May 9
  • Day of Russia - June 12
  • Day of National Unity - November 4

Paid Annual Leave

In Russia, employees are entitled to an annual paid leave of at least 28 calendar days. During the first year of service, the employee acquires the right to go on leave after six months of continuous service with the organization. Before the expiration of the six month period of continuous service, the paid leave must be granted upon application to the following categories of persons: Women before the maternity leave or right after it Employees under 18 years of age Employees who adopted a child under three months of age A husband may be given his annual paid leave by request during his wife's maternity leave. The employee should be informed of the time of the leave no later than two weeks before its start. Unused leave is eligible for rollover into the following year. Non-working holidays during the leave period are not included in the number of calendar days and are not paid. Additional annual paid leave must be granted to employees involved in work with harmful and dangerous conditions and employees working in the Far North regions. However, Russia's Labor Code does not specify how much additional leave must be granted.  

Sick Leave

In Russia, employees who become ill or suffer an injury may take sick leave from work. Sick leave is also extended to employees taking care of a sick relative. While taking sick leave, the employee is entitled to a temporary disability allowance that replaces between 60% and 100% of their average earnings (up to a maximum of RUB 2,572.60 (Russian rubles) daily in 2022) as follows: An insured person with an insurance record of eight years or more – 100% of the average earnings An insured person with an insurance record of five to eight years – 80% of the average earnings An insured person with an insurance record of up to five years – 60% of the average earnings. Temporary disability allowance is paid by the Social Security Fund of the Russian Federation for the entire duration of the temporary incapacity.

Maternity Leave

Russia's Labor Code grants a total of 140 days of paid maternity leave to pregnant women: 70 days before the delivery and 70 days after the delivery. In the case of multiple births, the leave is extended to 84 days before and after delivery. In the case of abnormal birth, it is extended to 86 days before and after delivery. Finally, in the case of the birth of 2 or more children, it is extended to 110 days before and after delivery. The employee is entitled to receive 100% of their earnings (up to a statutory maximum) during maternity leave, paid by the Social Security Fund of the Russian Federation. This benefit is paid up to a maximum of RUB 383,179 (Russian ruble). The maximum maternity allowance is RUB 23,011 in 2023 (for mothers who gave birth to 1 child and did not have an abnormal birth). Pregnant employees may not be employed in overtime or night work. They may also not work on weekends or public holidays. Finally, they may not travel for business. The law also prohibits the dismissal of pregnant employees unless the organization is being liquidated.

Paternity Leave

Russia's Labor Code grants fathers an unpaid leave of 5 days upon their child's birth. In addition, fathers are eligible to take child-rearing leave. However, child-rearing leave may only be used by one of the child's parents (or the child's primary caregiver). The leave may last for a maximum of 36 months, the first 18 of which are paid at 40% of the parent's salary (up to a cap). The benefit is paid by the Russian Social Security Fund. The remaining 18 months are unpaid.

Termination of Employment

Notice Period

According to Russia's Labor Code, an employee can terminate an employment contract by providing written notice of at least two weeks to the employer. A seasonal employee must provide three days' notice to the employer if they terminate their employment before the end of the season. An employer of seasonal employees must provide seven days' written notice to the employee if they terminate an employee before the end of the season. Employers and employees may mutually agree to terminate an employment contract before the expiration of the notice period. Notice periods are generally stipulated in individual employment contracts or collective agreements. An employer must give two months' notice to employees if the organization is being dissolved. Employers are not required to provide notice if an employee is terminated for cause.

Severance Benefits

According to Russia's Labor Code, employees whose contract is terminated due to the organization's liquidation or due to redundancy are entitled to severance pay equal to their average monthly earnings for up to three months. If the employment contract is terminated for the following reasons, the severance pay is equivalent to two weeks' salary: The employee refused to be transferred to another job due to a medical condition. The employee is being drafted to undergo military service or alternative civil service in place thereof. The employee refused to be transferred to a job in another area together with the employer. The employee is declared as entirely incapable of working by a medical practitioner. The seasonal employee's contract is canceled due to the organization's liquidation or a reduction in the number of employees. Individual or collective employment agreements can vary the amount and length of severance pay given to the employee. 

Social Security

Pension

The retirement age in Russia in 2022 is 61 years and 6 months for men and 56 years and 6 months years for women (the retirement age is gradually increasing to 65 for men and 60 for women by 2028). Employees must be insured for at least 13 years (rising to 15 years by 2024) to be eligible for a retirement pension. The old-age pension is the sum of the insured's pension points multiplied by the pension point's value in the year the pension is claimed, plus a basic flat-rate benefit. The flat-rate benefit is adjusted for pensioners with disabled dependent family members and pensioners who have worked in the Far North. Russia also has a social pension plan where non-working persons who have reached the age of 65 years (men) or 60 years (women) receive a fixed amount from the government, adjusted every year.

Dependents/Survivors Benefit

Russia's Pension Fund provides for pensions to survivors in case of death of the head of a household. The following persons are considered survivors: Children, sisters, brothers, and grandchildren of the deceased who have not reached the age of 18 years or are enrolled in full-time education until the age of 23 years, or are disabled The parents and the spouse of the deceased survivor, if they have reached the age of 60 (men) and 55 (women) or are disabled The deceased's grandfather and grandmother, if they have reached the age of 60 (men) and 55 (women) or are disabled. The pension for survivors is equal to the sum of the insured's pension points multiplied by the pension point's value in the year the pension is claimed, plus a fixed base benefit. Children under the age of 18 who have lost one or both parents, or children over 18 who are studying full-time, and children of a deceased single mother, receive a survivor's social pension. 

Invalidity Benefit

Russia's Pension Fund provides for disability insurance pensions. The disability pension is granted to persons who are considered Group I disabled (100% loss of working capacity and requiring constant attendance), Group II disabled (100% loss of working capacity and not requiring continuous attendance), or Group III disabled (at least a 50% loss of working capacity and not requiring constant attendance), regardless of the insurance period. The pension is the sum of the insured's pension points multiplied by the pension point value in the year the pension is claimed, plus a basic flat-rate benefit. Russia's Social Security Fund also provides temporary disability benefits in the case of illness, injury, or where a person is taking care of a sick family member. The allowance is generally paid for the entire duration of temporary incapacity. The amount of temporary disability allowance is as follows: An insured person with an insurance record of eight years or more – 100% of the average earnings An insured person with an insurance record of five to eight years – 80% of the average earnings An insured person with an insurance record of up to five years – 60% of the average earnings. Disabled persons, disabled children and disabled since childhood receive a social disability pension from the government. Social pension for disability and for the loss of a breadwinner is assigned regardless of the generally established retirement age.  

Taxation of Compensation and Benefits

Personal Income Tax

Per Russia's tax code, residents of Russia and individuals who receive income from sources in Russia are considered taxpayers. Persons who reside in Russia for at least 183 days a year are considered residents. Residents are taxed on all their income, whether it is sourced from inside or outside Russia. Non-residents are taxed on their income from sources in Russia. The tax period is the same as the calendar year, running from January 1 through December 31. The personal income tax rate in Russia for residents for the year 2022 is a flat 13% for income up to RUB 5,000,000 (Russian rubles) and 15% for income above that, except for certain categories of income for which the tax rate is 35%.

Immigration

Types of Visas

Diplomatic visas are issued to heads of states, agents of diplomatic missions, and other officials of foreign countries. Official visas are issued to members of official foreign delegations and their family members, administrative, technical, and maintenance personnel of diplomatic missions, and members of foreign states' armed forces. Ordinary (or regular) visas are classified into the following categories: Private visas are issued to foreign nationals entering Russia on a guest visit for up to three months. Business visas are issued for up to 30 days to foreign nationals who visit Russia for artistic and literary work of up to one year (or based on the principle of reciprocity) or up to five years to a foreign citizen entering Russia to conduct business trips. A tourist visa is issued for up to one month or based on reciprocity, and for up to six months where foreign nationals wish to visit Russia as tourists. Educational visas are issued for up to a year to foreign nationals who wish to study in an educational institute in Russia. Work visas are issued to foreign nationals who enter Russia to engage in employment for the period of validity of the employment contract with maximum validity of three years, renewable Humanitarian visas are issued to foreign citizens entering Russia to carry out scientific, cultural, socio-political, sports-related, or religious work. They are granted for up to 1 year or up to 5 years based on reciprocity. Visas for asylum are issued to foreign nationals for up to 3 months if they are declared refugees in Russia by a decision of the federal executive body of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Transit visas are issued for up to 10 days to foreign nationals to transit through Russian territory. Temporary resident visas are issued for up to 4 months to foreign nationals who wish to obtain a temporary resident permit in Russia.

Work Permit

Foreigners over 18 years of age who wish to work in Russia must obtain a work permit. The employer has to apply to the Ministry of Internal Affairs to obtain the work permit. The following information is required: First and last name (as well as a patronymic, if applicable) of the foreign citizen Date of birth of the foreign citizen State of permanent residence of the foreign citizen Address of the permanent residence of the foreign citizen Duration of employment Type of work performed by the foreign citizen Place of work Terms of employment of the foreign citizen A photograph of the foreigner Copy of the foreigner's educational qualifications  A document of identification, valid for at least six months. The work permit is issued for 1 year and is renewable. 

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